Some 40 percent of the world's population lives within 62
miles (100 kilometers) of seashore, putting millions of lives and billions of
dollars' worth of property and infrastructure at risk.
The biggest impact is expected to be on areas situated next
to river deltas, vulnerable to Natural Disasters because of their Flat and
The Mediterranean Sea is a partly enclosed basin, covering
about 2.5 million km² extending approximately 3,800 km east-west, and 900km
The Israeli Mediterranean coast is in a state of mild erosion
expressed by beach and cliff setback due to anthropogenic (*) past
actions of sand beach mining, coastal development, present and future sea level
rise due to global warming, the forecasted increased frequency of extreme
storms induced by climate change on wind and wave.
Dov S.Rosen (Israel National Institute of Oceanography) noted
sea level rise of 10 mm/year in the Hadera Gauging station during 1992- 2002 a
rate higher than the average rate of 1 – 1.8 mm/year estimated for the past 100
years. 100 millimeters of Sea Level Rise In a decade, can change
dramatically the coastline and the cliff.
Figure 1: Chart of sea level rise along the Israeli coast 1992-2002
source: Dov S.Rosen research 2002
Figure 2: A picture taken by
member of our group (Niki Bassat) while sailing in front of a coastal cliff collapse north to
Animation: Inundation (**) Increment of Israeli Coastline due to sea level rise (The
Hebrew University of Jerusalem). Assuming 10mm rise annually, the animation illustrates coastline inundation by the end of this century (1m= 1meter rise) and further on…
anthropogenic - human impact on the
Inundation - cover or overspread with water.
After reading the above, and watching the
animation, please choose the right answer for the following question:
What is the expected Impact of worldwide sea
level rise due to global warming on Israel’s beach and coastal cliffs?
The material covered by the question is interesting, important and
most pertinent to everyday life. But my first question on this question is
this: what exactly is the question? Is it the one appearing in the title
(i.e. “What is the expected Impact of worldwide sea level rise due to global
warming on Israel’s beach and coastal cliffs?”) or rather the question appearing
in the sea level rise chart (“Is this a trend or a decadal scale fluctuation?”).
If the latter option is correct, what exactly does the term “trend” mean? It
probably means here the opposite of “a decadal scale fluctuation”, but I think
it would be better to use a different term.
Also, the connection between the question (which again, should be
better specified) and the accompanying video is not entirely clear: is the
video (interesting by itself) just intended to illustrate the expected Israeli
coastline inundation? If so, I think this should be explained (or maybe the
video has some other purpose).
Except for clarifying the question and connecting more clearly
between the video (including its purpose) and the question, I would suggest
uploading a bigger (and sharper) sea level rise chart.
Furthermore, it might be a good idea to explain (if possible) how
come the sea level variations over 2-3 months (e.g. in the second quarter of
1997 or between late 1998 and early 1999) are so high; and also perhaps how the
average line is calculated (these explanations are not necessary to my mind, I
just find these points interesting and perhaps worth referring to).
I also have some stylistic suggestions (assume that the title
“Question:” is in line zero):
Line 7: “setback” instead of “set back”.
Lines 8-10: the sentence beginning with “The present and future sea
level” (maybe there is a missing “are” after “sea level rise”?) and ending with
“on wind and wave” is not clear (to me at least).
Caption of figure 2: “A picture” instead of “Picture”; add “a”
between “of” and “coastal”.
I would suggest also reformulating the answers. For example, the
word “Israel” should be inserted after “Northern” within the words “south to
Acre in Northern nourished sand originated....”, and the meaning of the verb
“nourished” here is not clear. And another example: when “the last decade” is
mentioned, does this mean 2006-2016 or 1992-2002?
As for the information point )I am
referring to the point entitled “Exit Glacier meltdown” etc.), it seems to me
interesting and original, and I think it contributes to a better understanding
of the subject. I have two suggestions here:
1. Explain the meaning of the terms “Steric effect” and “Alpine
Insert “a”’s before the word “Picture” in both picture-captions, and replace
the period in line 11 (from the top), between “downhill” and “causing”, with a
would like to thank you Michael, for your sincere feedback, we improve the
styling and add some clarification for better understanding. Please note, that
regarding your question about figure-1 and using the term "trend":
that this is an invitation for additional reading. We mentioned Dov
S.Rosen's research (from Israel National Institute of Oceanography) and
we encourage the interesting reader to find out (if we give you the answer
here, that will be a spoiler J).
issue you raised are the pictures we included as references; Please note that
all pictures are related to the sea level rise in Israel and globally (for more
detail, please read the description within each point), also it is linked to our
main subject we raised in class, which is Glacier Melting, one of the reasons
for sea level rise.
First, as Michael mentioned, the question (in the title) itself
should be located at the bottom just above the answers. In that way, the
student will better understand the relevance of the introductive information to
the question. (I see now you have done that.)
In general it took me few long minutes to read and understand
the question. I believe because of 2 main problems: (too) long sentences and
(too) high words. I even had to go to google translate to look for the word anthropogenic. I
think in that it would be better to phrase the information in simpler words as
possible. If we want to use a professional term which is not on the
expected curriculum, we should add an explanation, e.g. originating in human
then, the question will also teach something new rather than merely check
expected knowledge. I also checked for the word "inundation"and understood that it is probably a scientific term used to
explain coastalflooding. This is also a good
opportunity to teach something new.
The word set-back
is also confusing. I would suggest "regression".
main and most important paragraph of the question's introduction is long and
unclear. I would cut it into sentences in order to make it clearer and consider
eliminating a few words.
Hoping I understood it correctly, I would say: "The Israeli Mediterranean coast is in a state of mild erosion expressed by beach regression and cliff
collapsing. These phenomena are mainly due to human actions such as sand beach mining and
coastal development, but also due to present and future sea level
rise related to global warming and the forecasted increasing frequency of extreme storms
induced by climate change on wind and waves."
The graph on figure1, however, is well related to the
question and I like it.
Regarding the answers, these
are related to the question but some are adding new data which I am not sure is
expected from the students to know or deduct from the introductive information
of the question. For example: …" this will accelerate the
evaporation process" or the numbers in the sentence "the coastline has been moved 2
to 10 meters to the east; the coastal area is lost2 to 0.4 square kilometers
The answers demand contemplation. I was not sure that I chose the right answer.
I like the topic it's very interesting, it's obviously
related to our daily life, the information presented in a logical manner, to
know more I had done a lot of researches on the internet in order to add a
relatively point on the map ,the background contains an informative description
of several facts, the question is very important and well linked to the above information,
it raises an important issue that can affect on the sand and rock along the coastline
and can lead to a disaster, I think I had nothing new that I can add after the comment's of Michael and Yardena .
I think it will be good to add a scientific explanation about
the coastal erosion phenomenon such like how its occurs, and I suggest to add
more information to describe your animation cause it's not clear enough maybe
you can add more explanation about what happening and what's the "1m"
mean (I expected that it mean 1 meter ). As
Yardena mentioned, the correct answer contain a numbers that not mention
rather in the reading section nor in the graph " and the
coastline has been moved2 to 10 meters to the east, the coastal area which is lost,
is 2 to 0.4 square kilometers estimated "
and I’m not sure the students know this.
To explain the coastal erosion phenomenon I suggest to add
the following video :
The information on the points you added very helpful but some
points need more scientific explanation such like"Coastal Cliff Erosion in the Mediterranean
shoreline", the point must provide more information in
order to help the students to understand the question, some of the points are
not connected to our daily-life or there are not relatively to our country so I
suggested to find points that more relatively so you can take an original . The picture on the "Eilat Coral Reserve" point is so magnificent
but I think the point is not relatively to the main issue and not provide more
information that can help students to solve the quation.
1. there is a correlation between the theme of the paragraph and the question. it is straightforward and easy to find.
2. the figures and maps helped me see the whole picture of what is intended in the paragrapth.
3. If I was to improve something, I would simplify some of the terms by giving brief definitions of technical terms
Thank you, Abu Nimer Yasmine, for your kind feedback.
It was nice to know that you liked the issue we raised. Thank you also for the relevant
input attached to your comment.
We considered carefully your suggestions about
the right answer, and we added some information to the question, so the numbers
will look more familiar to the reader. We hope that it will be easier now to figure
out, what is the right answer.