Sea level rise and its impact on Israel’s beach and coastal cliffs.

Some 40 percent of the world's population lives within 62 miles (100 kilometers) of seashore, putting millions of lives and billions of dollars' worth of property and infrastructure at risk.

The biggest impact is expected to be on areas situated next to river deltas, vulnerable to Natural Disasters because of their Flat and low-lying landscape.  

The Mediterranean Sea is a partly enclosed basin, covering about 2.5 million km² extending approximately 3,800 km east-west, and 900km north-south.

The Israeli Mediterranean coast is in a state of mild erosion expressed by beach and cliff setback due to anthropogenic (*)  past actions of sand beach mining, coastal development, present and future sea level rise due to global warming, the forecasted increased frequency of extreme storms induced by climate change on wind and wave.

Dov S.Rosen (Israel National Institute of Oceanography) noted sea level rise of 10 mm/year in the Hadera Gauging station during 1992- 2002 a rate higher than the average rate of 1 – 1.8 mm/year estimated for the past 100 years. 100 millimeters of Sea Level Rise In a decade, can change dramatically the coastline and the cliff. 

Figure 1: Chart of sea level rise along the Israeli coast 1992-2002


       source: Dov S.Rosen  research 2002

Figure 2: A picture taken by member of our group (Niki Bassat) while sailing in front of a coastal cliff collapse north to Apollonia (Herzliya).

Animation: Inundation (**) Increment of Israeli Coastline due to sea level rise (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem). Assuming 10mm rise annually, the animation illustrates coastline inundation by the end of this century (1m= 1meter rise) and further on…

* anthropogenic -  human impact on the environment.

** Inundation -   cover or overspread with water.


After reading the above, and watching the animation, please choose the right answer for the following question: 

What is the expected Impact of worldwide sea level rise due to global warming on Israel’s beach and coastal cliffs?

0 People tried to answer this question

Mediterranean Sea is like a closed ecological system, and therefore, sea level rise noted by Hadera's monitor station is not a trend, but decadal scale fluctuation.

The Israel's coast sand origin is from the Nile Delta. The sand is transported through the waves and sea currents. Sea level rise will accelerate the erosion of sand and therefore the coast will not be damaged.

The increase of one hundred millimeters in the last decade has caused an erosion of the Israeli beaches and coasts, and the coastline has been moved2 to 10 meters to the east, the coastal area which is lost, is 2 to 0.4 square kilometers estimated.

Because of the global warming, the temperature in the Mediterranean Sea will rise rapidly, this will accelerate the evaporation process and therefore the scientists predicting moderate sea level rise of 10-15 millimeter in decade.

1.  Elazar Michael (2019-05-20 16:00:00)

The material covered by the question is interesting, important and most pertinent to everyday life. But my first question on this question is this: what exactly is the question? Is it the one appearing in the title (i.e. “What is the expected Impact of worldwide sea level rise due to global warming on Israel’s beach and coastal cliffs?”) or rather the question appearing in the sea level rise chart (“Is this a trend or a decadal scale fluctuation?”). If the latter option is correct, what exactly does the term “trend” mean? It probably means here the opposite of “a decadal scale fluctuation”, but I think it would be better to use a different term.   


Also, the connection between the question (which again, should be better specified) and the accompanying video is not entirely clear: is the video (interesting by itself) just intended to illustrate the expected Israeli coastline inundation? If so, I think this should be explained (or maybe the video has some other purpose).    


Except for clarifying the question and connecting more clearly between the video (including its purpose) and the question, I would suggest uploading a bigger (and sharper) sea level rise chart.

Furthermore, it might be a good idea to explain (if possible) how come the sea level variations over 2-3 months (e.g. in the second quarter of 1997 or between late 1998 and early 1999) are so high; and also perhaps how the average line is calculated (these explanations are not necessary to my mind, I just find these points interesting and perhaps worth referring to).


I also have some stylistic suggestions (assume that the title “Question:” is in line zero):

Line 7: “setback” instead of “set back”.

Lines 8-10: the sentence beginning with “The present and future sea level” (maybe there is a missing “are” after “sea level rise”?) and ending with “on wind and wave” is not clear (to me at least).

Caption of figure 2: “A picture” instead of “Picture”; add “a” between “of” and “coastal”. 


I would suggest also reformulating the answers. For example, the word “Israel” should be inserted after “Northern” within the words “south to Acre in Northern nourished sand originated....”, and the meaning of the verb “nourished” here is not clear. And another example: when “the last decade” is mentioned, does this mean 2006-2016 or 1992-2002?


As for the information point )I am referring to the point entitled “Exit Glacier meltdown” etc.), it seems to me interesting and original, and I think it contributes to a better understanding of the subject. I have two suggestions here:

1. Explain the meaning of the terms “Steric effect” and “Alpine glacier”.  

2. Insert “a”’s before the word “Picture” in both picture-captions, and replace the period in line 11 (from the top), between “downhill” and “causing”, with a comma.  
2.  Abraham Ronit (23.05.2016 pm 09.51.48)
An answer for Michael

We would like to thank you Michael, for your sincere feedback, we improve the styling and add some clarification for better understanding. Please note, that regarding your question about figure-1 and using the term "trend": that this is an invitation for additional reading. We mentioned Dov S.Rosen's research (from Israel National Institute of Oceanography) and we encourage the interesting reader to find out (if we give you the answer here, that will be a spoiler J).

Another issue you raised are the pictures we included as references; Please note that all pictures are related to the sea level rise in Israel and globally (for more detail, please read the description within each point), also it is linked to our main subject we raised in class, which is Glacier Melting, one of the reasons for sea level rise.

Regards, Sea Level rise Group

3.  Levy Yardena (28.05.2016 am 12.53.25)
Dear friends

My reference to the question:

First, as Michael mentioned, the question (in the title) itself should be located at the bottom just above the answers. In that way, the student will better understand the relevance of the introductive information to the question. (I see now you have done that.)

In general it took me few long minutes to read and understand the question. I believe because of 2 main problems: (too) long sentences and (too) high words. I even had to go to google translate to look for the word anthropogenic. I think in that it would be better to phrase the information in simpler words as possible. If we want to use a professional term which is not on the expected curriculum, we should add an explanation, e.g. originating in human activity, and then, the question will also teach something new rather than merely check expected knowledge. I also checked for the word "inundation" and understood that it is probably a scientific term used to explain coastal flooding. This is also a good opportunity to teach something new.
The word set-back is also confusing. I would suggest "regression".

The main and most important paragraph of the question's introduction is long and unclear. I would cut it into sentences in order to make it clearer and consider eliminating a few words.
Hoping I understood it correctly, I would say: "
The Israeli Mediterranean coast is in a state of mild erosion expressed by beach regression and cliff collapsing. These phenomena are mainly due to human actions such as sand beach mining and coastal development, but also due to present and future sea level rise related to global warming and the forecasted increasing frequency of extreme storms induced by climate change on wind and waves."

The graph on figure1, however, is well related to the question and I like it. 

Regarding the answers, these are related to the question but some are adding new data which I am not sure is expected from the students to know or deduct from the introductive information of the question. For example: …" this will accelerate the evaporation process" or the numbers in the sentence "the coastline has been moved 2 to 10 meters to the east; the coastal area is lost2 to 0.4 square kilometers estimated."
The answers demand contemplation. I was not sure that I chose the right answer. 

4.  Hajouj khawla (29.05.2016 am 08.37.41)
Replay for Yardena
Hi  Yardena ,

Thank you for your remarks and suggestions  for our question.

We improved the syntax according to your helpful comments. 

We hope that you will find our question better understood now.


Sea Level Rise Group.

5.  Abu Nimer Yasmine (29.05.2016 pm 01.36.32)

I like the topic it's very interesting, it's obviously related to our daily life, the information presented in a logical manner, to know more I had done a lot of researches on the internet in order to add a relatively point on the map ,the background contains an informative description of several facts, the question is very important and well linked to the above information, it raises an important issue that can affect on the sand and rock along the coastline and can lead to a disaster, I think I had nothing new that I can add after the comment's of Michael and Yardena .

I think it will be good to add a scientific explanation about the coastal erosion phenomenon such like how its occurs, and I suggest to add more information to describe your animation cause it's not clear enough maybe you can add more explanation about what happening and what's the "1m" mean (I expected that it mean 1 meter ).  As Yardena mentioned, the correct answer contain a numbers that not mention rather in the reading section nor in the graph "  and the coastline has been moved 2 to 10 meters to the east, the coastal area which is lost, is 2 to 0.4 square kilometers estimated " and I’m not sure the students know this.

To explain the coastal erosion phenomenon I suggest to add the following video :   

The information on the points you added very helpful but some points need more scientific explanation such like "Coastal Cliff Erosion in the Mediterranean shoreline" , the point must provide more information in order to help the students to understand the question, some of the points are not connected to our daily-life or there are not relatively to our country so I suggested to find points that more relatively  so you can take an original .  The picture on the "Eilat Coral Reserve" point is so magnificent but I think the point is not relatively to the main issue and not provide more information that can help students to solve the quation.

6.  daso yosra (30.05.2016 pm 07.50.52)
1. there is a correlation between the theme of the paragraph and the question. it is straightforward and easy to find. 2. the figures and maps helped me see the whole picture of what is intended in the paragrapth. 3. If I was to improve something, I would simplify some of the terms by giving brief definitions of technical terms
7.  Abraham Ronit (04.06.2016 pm 06.34.42)
An answer to Abu Nimer Yasmine

Thank you, Abu Nimer Yasmine, for your kind feedback. It was nice to know that you liked the issue we raised. Thank you also for the relevant input attached to your comment.

We considered carefully your suggestions about the right answer, and we added some information to the question, so the numbers will look more familiar to the reader. We hope that it will be easier now to figure out, what is the right answer.

 Regards, Sea Level Group   
8.  Abraham Ronit (04.06.2016 pm 06.37.48)
An answer to Yosra Yaso

Thank you Yosra Yaso, for your feedback.  We add some definitions to the professional's term. We hope that you will find our question better clarified. 

Thank you also for the addional point "apolonia- herzliya coast - Sara Malkin St 16, Herzliya, Israel", which is relevant and an interesting evidencing to beach erosion and coastal cliffs retreat.

Regards, Sea level Rise Group

History of edits
Edited BY: Ronit Abraham Edit Date: 2016-06-06 10:41:26
Edited BY: Ronit Abraham Edit Date: 2016-06-06 10:40:52
Edited BY: Ronit Abraham Edit Date: 2016-06-04 18:32:15
Edited BY: Ronit Abraham Edit Date: 2016-06-04 18:16:29
Edited BY: Ronit Abraham Edit Date: 2016-06-04 18:13:00
Edited BY: Niki Bassat Edit Date: 2016-06-04 15:05:55
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